PowerCLI: An Aspiring Automator’s Guide

Getting into scripting can be daunting. It’s easier to just use existing scripts found online, but if you choose this route you’ll quickly run into limitations. If you take the time to learn how to create your scripts, trust me, you’ll never look back!

PowerCLI: The Aspiring Automator’s Guide

Automating vSphere is particularly useful for countless applications and the best way is through PowerCLI – a version of PowerShell developed specifically for VMware. Learn how to develop your own PowerCLI scripts with this free 100+ page eBook from Altaro, PowerCLI: The Aspiring Automator’s Guide.

Written by VMware vExpert Xavier Avrillier, this eBook presents a use-case approach to learning how to automate tasks in vSphere environments using PowerCLI. We start by covering the basics of installation, set up, and an overview of PowerCLI terms. From there we move into scripting logic and script building with step-by-step instructions of truly useful custom scripts, including how to retrieve data on vSphere objects; display VM performance metrics; how to build HTML reports and schedule them; the basics on building functions; and more!

Stop looking at scripts online in envy because you wish you could build your own scripts.

Get started on your path to automation greatness – Download the eBook now!

How Can CloudHealth by VMware Help Me?

How Can CloudHealth by VMware Help Me?

Introduction

Over the past 12 months we have seen further growth within the cloud, as many organisations scale or create new digital services in response to the coronavirus pandemic. Improved speed and agility has allowed businesses to pivot where traditional siloed infrastructure may have caused them to stall.

As the usage of cloud services expands, standardising and consolidating cloud tooling becomes important for financial management, operational governance, and security and compliance. Visibility into distributed system architectures across many accounts or subscriptions, or even multi-cloud, is another key challenge. For some customers cloud workloads are not optimised or configured to best standards, many will spend more than their anticipated budget, and others may accidentally expose data or services.

Those with an established cloud strategy may decide to implement a Cloud Centre of Excellence (CCoE); responsible for cloud operations, security, and financial management. The CCoE will navigate the security and configuration landscape of cloud assets, automating response and remediation to configuration drift or threats. As the team grows in maturity optimisations are made continuously and automatically, inline with the key drivers of the business. This is where CloudHealth comes in.

CloudHealth by VMware is a multi-cloud SaaS solution managing more than $11B of public cloud spend for over 10,000 customers. CloudHealth accelerates business transformation in the cloud by providing a single platform solution for visibility into AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, VMware Cloud on AWS, and on-premises VMware based environments. The key functionality is broken down into the 2 products we’ll look at below.

CloudHealth Multicloud Platform

CloudHealth takes data from cloud platforms, data centres, and third party tools for application, security, and configuration management. Data is ingested and aggregated using CloudHealth’s integrated data layer, which performs analysis on usage, performance, cost, and security posture. CloudHealth becomes a single source for multi-cloud management across environments, strengthening security and compliance, consolidating management, and improving collaboration between previously siloed teams of people and tools.

Data and assets can be categorised by tags or other metadata, and viewed in logical business groups known as perspectives . Perspectives provide a breakdown for cost allocation using dynamic groups such as line of business, department, cost centre, or project. The output can be used to identify trends and build dashboards and reports. This approach simplifies financial management, saves time, aids with budgeting and forecasting, and encourages accountability through accurate chargeback or showback.

CloudHealth Cost Dashboard

Whilst visibility is great, to really have a positive impact on operations we need to know what to do with the data collected. CloudHealth presents back cost optimisation recommendations and security risks, but can also carry out remediation actions automatically.

Cost optimisation is where you can save money, using AWS as an example, based on things like; EC2 instances that are oversized or on an inefficient purchase plan, elastic IP addresses or EBS volumes that are not attached to any resources, snapshots that have not been deleted. In the physical on-premises world all of these issues were common as part of VM sprawl, they impacted capacity planning and resource consumption but were mostly hidden or swallowed as part of the wider infrastructure cost. As organisations shift from large capital investments to ongoing revenue and consumption based pricing, oversized or unused resources literally convert to money going out of the door every single month.

CloudHealth Health Check

Recommendations and actions are where CloudHealth carries out remediation for incorrectly configured or under-utilised resources. Policies can also be used to define desired states and ensure operational compliance. For example, an organisation may want to report on untagged resources, connected accounts, or open ports. The number of available actions currently appears to only cover AWS and Azure, but with support recently added for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, and Google Cloud Platform before that, hopefully this functionality will continue to be built out.

CloudHealth Remediation Actions

At the time of writing CloudHealth is priced based on cloud spend, and can be purchased as a 1, 2, or 3 year prepaid commitment, or variable pricing based on the previous months cloud spend. A free trial is available to uncover ROI in your own environment from CloudHealth here.

Where VMware environments are in use with vRealize Operations, the CloudHealth management pack for vRealize Operations can be installed. Bringing CloudHealth dashboards and prospects into vROps allows IT ops teams to track on-premises infrastructure and public cloud costs from a single interface. The CloudHealth management pack for vROps can be downloaded from the VMware Marketplace, instructions are here.

CloudHealth Secure State

By default CloudHealth provides real-time information on security risk exposure, but for deep-dive visibility and remediation those who are serious about security will want to look at Secure State. CloudHealth Secure State is available with CloudHealth or standalone, and currently supports AWS, Azure, and GCP.

Dashboards within CloudHealth Secure State enable at-a-glance checks on security posture and compliance. There are over 700 built-in security rules and compliance frameworks that can be used as security guardrails, with the ability to add custom rules and frameworks on top.

As systems become distributed over multiple accounts, subscriptions, or even clouds, the dynamics of securing an organisations assets shift significantly. Previously all services were contained within a data centre, firstly using perimeter firewalls and then with micro-segmentation. IT teams were generally in control and had visibility throughout the corporate network. Nowadays a developer or user responsible for a service can potentially open applications or data to the public, either on purpose or by accident. Cloud security guardrails form an important baseline for security posture and cloud strategy. Security guardrails are made up of critical must-have configurations in policies with auto-remediation actions attached, they help avoid mistakes or configuration drift to ultimately reduce security risk.

CloudHealth Secure State gives further visibility into resource relationships and context, using the Explore UI. Explore enables a powerful model of multi-cloud or account architectures, with visual topology diagrams of complex environments. Cyber security analysts or operations centres can drill down into individual resources with all interoperable components and dependencies already mapped out.

CloudHealth Secure State Dashboard
CloudHealth Secure State Compliance

How to Install vSphere 7.0 – vRealize Operations Manager 8.2

How to Install vSphere 7.0 – vRealize Operations Manager 8.2

Introduction

In this post we take a look at a vRealize Operations (vROps) deployment for vSphere 7; building on the installation of vCenter 7.0 U1 and vSAN 7.0 U1. Shortly after installing vROps 8.2, vRealize Operations 8.3 was released. The install process is similar, you can read what’s new here and see the upgrade process here.

vRealize Operations is an IT operations management tool for monitoring full-stack physical, virtual, and cloud infrastructure, along with virtual machine, container, operating system, and application level insights. vROps provides performance and capacity optimisation, monitoring and alerting, troubleshooting and remediation, and dashboards and reporting. vROps also handles private costings, showback, and what-if scenarios for VMware, VMware Cloud, and public cloud workloads. Many of these features have been released with version 8.2, and now work slicker fully integrated into the vROps user interface, rather than a standalone product. Previously vRealize Business would cater for similar costing requirements, but has since been declared end of life.

vRealize Operations can be deployed on-premises to an existing VMware environment, or consumed Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). vRealize Operations Cloud has the same functionality, with the ongoing operational overhead of lifecycle management and maintenance taken care of by VMware. Multiple vCenter Servers or cloud accounts can be managed and monitored from a single vROps instance. For more information on vROps see the What is vRealize Operations product page.

vRealize Operations Manager 8.2 Install Guide

The vRealize Operations Manager installation for lone instances is really straight forward, as is applying management packs for monitoring additional environments. Where the installation may get more complex, is if multiple cluster nodes need to be deployed, along with remote collector nodes, and/or multiple instances. If you think this may apply to you review the complexity levels outlined in the vRealize Operations Manager 8.2 Deployment Guide.

The installation steps below walk through the process of installing vROps using the master node. All deployments start out with a master node, which in some cases is sufficient to manage itself and perform all data collection and analysis operations. Optional nodes can be added in the form of; further data nodes for larger deployments, replica nodes for highly available deployments, and remote collector nodes for distributed deployments. Remote collector nodes, for example, can be used to compress and encrypt data collected at another site or another VMware Cloud platform. This could be an architecture where a solution like Azure VMware Solution is in use, with an on-premises installation of vROps. For more information on the different node types and availability setups see the deployment guide linked above.

When considering the deployment size and node design for vROps, review the VMware KB ​vRealize Operations Manager Sizing Guidelines, which is kept up to date with sizing requirements for the latest versions. The compute and storage allocations needed depend on your environment, the type of data collected, the data retention period, and the deployment type.

Installation

Before starting ensure you have a static IP address ready for the master node, or (ideally and) a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) with forward and reverse DNS entries. For larger than single node deployments check the Cluster Requirements section of the deployment guide.

The vRealize Operations Manager appliance can be downloaded in Open Virtualisation Format (OVF) here, and the release note for v8.2.0 here. As with many VMware products a 60 day evaluation period is applied. The vRealize Operations Manager OVF needs to be deployed for each vROps cluster node in the environment. Deployment and configuration of vRealize Operations Manager can also be automated using vRealize Suite Lifecycle Manager.

vRealize Operations Manager download

Log into the vSphere client and deploy the OVF (right click the data centre, cluster, or host object and select Deploy OVF Template).

The deployment interface prompts for the usual options like compute, storage, and IP address allocation, as well as the appliance size based on the sizing guidelines above. Do not include an underscore (_) in the hostname. The disk sizes (20 GB, 250 GB, 4 GB) are the same regardless of the appliance size configured. New disks can be added, but extending existing disks is not supported. Also be aware that snapshots can cause performance degradation and should not be used. For this deployment I have selected a small deployment; 4 CPU, 16 GB RAM.

Once deployed browse to the appliance FQDN or IP address to complete the appliance setup. You can double check the IP address from the virtual machine page in vSphere or the remote console. For larger environments and additional settings like custom certificates, high availability, and multiple nodes select New Installation. In this instance since vROps will be managing only a single vCenter with 3 or 4 hosts I select the Express Installation.

vRealize Operations Manager start page

The vRealize Operations Manager appliance will be set as the master node, this configuration can be scaled out later on if needed. Click Next to continue.

vRealize Operations Manager new cluster setup

Set an administrator password at least 8 characters long, with an uppercase and lowercase letter, number, and special character, then click Next. Note that the user name is admin, and not administrator.

vRealize Operations Manager administrator credentials

Click Finish to apply the configuration. A loading bar preparing vRealize Operations Manager for first use will appear. This stage can take up to 15 minutes.

vRealize Operations Manager initial setup

Login with the username admin and the password set earlier.

vRealize Operations Manager login page

There are a few final steps to configure before gaining access to the user interface. Click Next.

vRealize Operations Manager final setup

Accept the End User License Agreement (EULA) and click Next.

vRealize Operations Manager terms and conditions

Enter the license information and click Next.

vRealize Operations Manager license information

Select or deselect the Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP) option and click Next. Click Finish to progress to the vROps user interface.

vRealize Operations Manager final setup

Finally we’re into vRealize Operations home page, take a look around, or go straight into Add Cloud Account.

vRealize Operations Manager home page

Select the account type, in this case we’re adding a vCenter.

vRealize Operations Manager account types

Enter a name for the account, and the vCenter Server FQDN or IP address. I’m using the default collector group since we are only monitoring a small lab environment. You can test using Validate Connection, then click Add.

vRealize Operations Manager add vCenter Server

Give the vCenter account a few minutes to sync up, the status should change to OK. A message in the right-hand corner will notify that the vCenter collection is in progress.

vRealize Operations Manager vCenter collection

Back at the home page a prompt is displayed to set the currency; configurable under Administration, Management, Global Settings, Currency. In this case I’ve set GBP(£). For accurate cost comparisons and environment specific optimisations you can also add your own costs for things like hardware, software, facilities, and labour. Cost data can be customised under Administration, Configuration, Cost Settings.

vRealize Operations Manager quick start page

A common next step is to configure access using your corporate Identity Provider, such as Active Directory. Click Administration, Access, Authentication Sources, Add, and configure the relevant settings.

Multiple vCenter Servers can be managed from the vRealize Operations Manager interface. Individual vCenter Servers can also access vROps data from the vSphere client, from the Menu dropdown and vRealize Operations. A number of nested ESXi hosts are shut down in this environment which is generating the critical errors in the screenshot.

vRealize Operations Manager overview page

Featured image by Jonas Svidras on Unsplash